Country profile

Uganda is a landlocked country, bordered by republic of South Sudan to the North, Democratic Republic of Congo to the west, Rwanda and Tanzania to the South, and Kenya to the East.

Topographically much of Uganda can be classified as a plateau, with numerous small hills and valleys and extensive savannah plains. The entire country lies above 900m above sea level generally sloping from South to North. The country lies in a cradle of Mountains on its East Border with Kenya, Mount Elgon, and Mount. Moroto in the North East, and the South-Western Rwenzori Ranges rising to altitudes over 2000m. Uganda is a well watered country with close to 17% or 51,000 of its area dedicated to swamp or open water. Much of the country lies in the 'Interlacustrine Region' (Between the lakes) of Africa. This region receives abundant rainfall, and is rich in tillable land, a major determining factor in settlement of the area.

Vegetation in Uganda is extremely diverse a result of the different micro-climates of the country. Vegetation zones can be roughly classified according to the rainfall zones and are generally; Lake region, Northern Region, and the Highlands of the South-East. These are defined according to the climate of the particular areas

Uganda became an independent - sovereign nation in 1962 and has had the following president since then;







Sir. Edward Muteesa II




Dr.Apollo Milton Obote




Field Marshall Idi Amin Dada




Mr.Yusuf Kironde Lule




Mr.Godfrey L. Binaisa




Dr. Apollo Milton Obote




Gen. Tito Okello Lutwa




Gen. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni





Uganda follows a system of five tiers of governance linked through complex political and administrative arrangements that form a structure of Local government. These are; Districts,Counties/Municipalities,Sub-counties/Divisions,Parishes/Wards,and villages/Zones.

The system of Local Government in Uganda is based on the District as a Unit under which there are lower Local Governments and Administrative Unit Councils. Elected Local Government Councils which are accountable to the people are made up of persons directly elected to represent electoral areas, persons with disabilities, the youth and women councilors forming one third of the council. The Local Government Council is the highest political authority in its area of jurisdiction. The councils are corporate bodies having both legislative and executive powers. They have powers to make local laws and enforce implementation. On the other hand Administrative Unit Councils serve as political units to advise on planning and implementation of services. They assist in the resolution of disputes, monitor the delivery of services and assist in the maintenance of law, order and security.

The Local Governments in a District rural area are:

  • The District
  • The Sub-county

The Local Governments in a city are:

  • The City Council
  • The City Division Council

The Local Governments in a Municipality are:

  • The Municipal Council
  • The Municipal Division Council
  • The Town Council is also Local Government

The Administrative Units in the rural areas are:

  • Sub-county
  • Parish
  • Village

The Administrative Units in the urban areas are:

  • Division
  • Parish or Ward
  • Village

The Local Government Act, 1997 gives effect to the devolution of functions, powers, and services to all levels of Local Government to enhance good governance and democratic participation in and control of decision-making by the people. The law also provides revenue, political and administrative set up of Local Governments as well as election of Local Councils.

The powers which are assigned to the Local Governments include powers of making local policy and regulating the delivery of services; formulation of development plans based on locally determined priorities; receive, raise, manage and allocate revenue through approval and execution of own budgets; alter or create new boundaries; appoint statutory commissions, boards and committees for personnel, land, procurement and accountability; as well as establish or abolish offices in Public Service of a District or Urban Council.

The central Government is responsible for national affairs and services; formulation of national policies and national standards and monitoring the implementation of national polices and services to ensure compliance with standards and regulations.

Line ministries carry out technical supervision, technical advice, mentoring of Local Governments and liaison with international agencies.


Geographical Indicators


  4o12’N & 1o29’S


  29o34’E & 35o0’E

 Altitude (minimum ASL)

  620 metres

 (maximum ASL) Total surface areaArea under landArea under water and swamps Temperature

  5,110 metres 241,550.7 km2  199,807 km2  41,743 km2  16-30oC


  850 -1700 mm/year

2012 Economic Indicators

 GDP at current market prices

 53,202 billion Shs

 Per capita GDP at current market prices


 GDP growth rate at constant (2002) market prices

 2.8 percent

 Per capita GDP growth rate at constant (2002) market prices

 -0.8 percent

 Contribution of agriculture to GDP at current market prices

 22.2 percent


  -522.2 million US$

 Inflation rate

  14.0 percent

 Budget deficit excluding grants as a percentage of GDP (2012/13)

 6.4 percent

Demographic and socio-economic indicators

 Total population (2013 mid-year)*

  35.4 million

 Percentage urban (2013 mid-year)*

  18.1 percent

 Population of Kampala city (2013 mid-year)*

 1.79 million

 Sex ratio of total population (2002 census) Population density (2002 census)

 95 males per 100 females 123 persons /km2

 Infant Mortality rate (2002 census)*

  76 per 1000 live births

 Life Expectancy at birth (2002 census)*

  50.4 years


  48.8 years


  52.0 years

 Pupil Teacher ratio (Primary 2012)


 Pupil Classroom ratio (Primary 2012)


 Student Teacher ratio (Secondary 2012)


 Student Classroom ratio (Secondary 2012)



Note: * Demographic projections were based on the Census 2002 final results.

Only population of gazetted city, municipalities and towns was considered as urban population.